Managing Through COVID-19: Staying Right Side Up in an Upside Down World
Managing Through COVID-19: Staying Right Side Up in an Upside Down World
05/21/20 Laura Gibbons
Managing during normal circumstances can be challenging, but managing through the COVID-19 pandemic brings a new set of challenges. COVID-19 has affected both our work and personal lives and we continue to navigate this uncharted territory. As we reopen and return to work (or continue a new way of working), managers need to prepare for the stress, emotional, and mental health issues that the workforce may be under.
Staying right side up in an upside down world represents our desire to feel grounded again and regain some control in our lives, as personal control is a stabilizing force for many.
COVID-19 has impacted our lives in many ways. And although we have this shared experience – the COVID-19 pandemic – our individual experiences and reactions may vary. Some people may experience certain reactions immediately after the event while others may think that they are fine for a while and then begin to notice changes weeks later. COVID-19 is unlike other events because it is ongoing and is not a single event. Both immediate and delayed reactions to crisis are normal and it is important for management to understand what employees may be experiencing along with the related impacts:
Common Reactions to Crisis
Reactions to crises can be physical, emotional, mental, and behavioral. Physically, one may experience headaches, stomachaches, muscle tension, fatigue, changes in sleep patterns, and increased heart rate. Emotionally, they may be more irritable, anxious, depressed, nervous, sad, overwhelmed, uncertain, fearful, guilt, numb, or grief. Mentally, one may become more forgetful, confused, suspicious, disorganized, change in attitude, and hyper-vigilant. Behaviorally, one may become withdrawn; exhibit angry outbursts; appetite changes; increased use of sugar, caffeine, alcohol or drugs; changes in grooming habits; and loss of motivation.
Individuals may cope differently during a crisis due to several factors, including:
Past experiences and resilience. Past experiences influence the way one perceives, reacts, and believes that they can bounce back from challenging situations. If one feels more positive, hopeful, and capable, they are likely to flex their resiliency muscle to cope with new or adverse situations.
Compounding stressors. An individual’s coping skills may be hindered when stressors present prior to COVID-19 and those after compound outside one’s norm. Stressors may include working from home, children out of school and e-learning, disruption in social and family interactions, canceling of ongoing activities, and additional restrictions that make individuals feel both work and home are out of balance.
History of mental health conditions. If someone has a history of anxiety or depression, they may likely have more intense reactions and increased symptoms during these uncertain times.
Need for control. Some individuals are aware of their significant need for control. Some may be used to holding tightly on to control where others are more flexible. COVID-19 has been notorious for taking away our control making some feel uneasy, uncomfortable, or even helpless which increases stress.
Family and Social Support Systems. One’s family and social support network is important during this time to feel connected and supported, even if it looks different. Those who do not have a strong support system may have a harder time coping during a crisis and may feel alone. Individual’s religious/spiritual beliefs shape values and perceptions of life and can provide strength and comfort even when church, clubs, hobbies, gyms, volunteering, and other activities that once filled us up are less accessible.
Grief and loss. Grief and loss may feel more intense during this time. When a crisis occurs, past losses can start to resurface. They may also find loss in disappointments. Many are not able to experience or participate in milestones such as graduations, birthdays, weddings, births, anniversaries, vacations, and even saying goodbye to loved ones with a ritual of a funeral. The picture they once envisioned has been altered; therefore, the grieving process ensues.
There may be employees who have experienced COVID-19 up close either by contracting it themselves, or with a loved who one was infected, or they may even know someone whom more sadly passed away from it. They also may have a loved one in the hospital or in a nursing home where they cannot be with them because of restrictions. In addition, people may feel a loss in their sense of health safety and may be more worried when they do not feel well, “what if it is COVID-19.”
Employee changes in the workplace
With a crisis, there may also be effects in the workplace and with employee productivity. Managers (and employees) may see employees with agitation, increased absenteeism or tardiness, inability to concentrate, forgetfulness, increased incidence of errors, tendency to overwork or underwork, employee conflict, employees being more reactive, or ongoing frustration.
Managers must be cognizant of today’s landscape and be ready to listen, understand the many complicating factors to be mindful of how to respond to encourage improvement.
Pitfalls to Avoid as Managers
Not business as usual. Unfortunately, we are not returning to business as usual. Eight weeks ago, a new normal was created with employees transitioning to working from home. Now, employees have or are planning to return to work. However, as we return to work we may bring with us some new baggage. Although some may be eager to return to work, some may not be ready due to the fears or concerns they may have of the virus, as well as having to adjust again.
As we return to work, the workplace may now look different – from changes in workstations, to meetings being from your desk rather than a conference room, having more sanitation protocols, and continuing to have to interact in more remote ways – with colleagues, clients, customers, etc. Some employees may be back in the office while others have not returned. Some employees may be working different shifts or days. What we once knew looks very different.
Importance of self-care: It is important for supervisors and managers to incorporate appropriate self-care during this time. Getting sleep, practicing mindfulness, getting out in nature, engaging in a hobby, asking for help, and other activities that you enjoy and that are good for you is important to one’s own self-care. Leaders are not immune to the effects of COVID-19. With more responsibilities upon managers during this time, leaders may find themselves more fatigued and overwhelmed. It will be important for managers to be aware of their own feelings and reactions to all the changes, and the impact they may be having on one’s own personal and work life. Supervisors and managers may need more support during this time and the EAP is a very helpful resource to help find strategies to function at your best.
Try not to personalize things: Employees may be more reactive with their comments and actions due to their issues with stress, frustration, and feeling out of control. Listen for themes in what they are saying and ask them directly what they need and reassure them you are here to support them. Management will need to extend more patience and tailor support to each employee’s needs.
Ability to adapt: Management’s ability to adapt to on-going changes, managing differently to meet new needs, and adapting to new ways of doing business will be essential. If you thrive on structure and routine, pay close attention to how you are responding to all the changes at work. Management will need to set the tone in the work environment and be able to reframe the change and challenges into opportunities for learning and growth.
Strategies for Management
The overwhelming themes heard from employees when discussing return to work are safety and open and honest communication. Consider these strategy tips:
Employees need to feel safe. Employees need to feel safe to return to work and to be productive and positive employees. Management needs to communicate the organization’s COVID-19 preparedness response and control plans to reduce employee exposure to the virus. Be descriptive of the policies, procedures, and standards put in place and reference CDC guidelines, as well as local and state guidelines. Make it clear what is expected of all employees to ensure each other’s safety.
Create an effective and ongoing communication system. Ongoing communication with employees will be important so that they can receive information, as well as provide feedback. Actively listening to your employees and their needs to feel safe and maintain productivity will be important to incorporate into your plan. This will provide reassurance that “we are in this together” and “we will get through this together.”
Like any relationship, validating employee feelings and showing empathy makes employees feel heard and understood. Remember, the future of work is the future of the workers’ well-being. The employee needs to feel safe, secure and valued by their organization.
There are many unknowns and so adapting to the “Next Normal” appears to be more descriptive than the “New Normal” because it better describes the ever-changing situation at hand and prepares us to move through the necessary stages of adjustment.
Be flexible. Management needs to see their plans as fluid and be prepared to be flexible if the present plan is not working. Providing flexible work schedules, remote work, feasible accommodations, and enhanced work environments where possible will be things to continue to consider during this time.
Remain visible. Being visible to employees even if some staff is still working from home will be vital. We miss having a baseline for individuals that we are used to seeing on a day-to-day basis. To keep connected, check in with employees that you have not been as connected with and ask them how they are doing and if they need additional support. Letting employees know that you care about them, appreciate them, and value them goes a long way – especially during stressful times.
Find ways to connect with your workforce no matter where they are. Here are some ideas:
- Plan morning or afternoon huddles to check in with teams
- Add in virtual fun – connect with employees on non-work related items to increase the comradery and the normal socialization we would have in the office
- Provide a forum for employees to share ways they have adapted and thrived. We learn so much from each other and can feel encouraged and motivated in a new way
- If back to work, have outdoor meetings where you can still social distance
- Provide employees permission to take breaks throughout the day or to take a day off
- Have virtual or socially distancing mindfulness or yoga sessions, and encourage more active breaks whether working from home or in the office
Celebrate what you have accomplished. Do not forget to celebrate what your team has done. Many organizations had to move quickly to accommodate stay at home orders, implement work from home systems, and find the best ways to continue to service clients and customers in more remote ways. This was no small feat. This is an opportunity to acknowledge and praise your workforce for their teamwork and resilience. Building resilient teams creates a workforce that can view crisis and change as surmountable, operate with a can-do attitude, envision the possibilities, and embrace new opportunities.
Use humor. One of the healing agents we often overlook is humor. Humor can combat fear, can comfort, relaxes us, reduces stress, spreads happiness, and creates optimism. During these times, we need to have permission to smile and laugh and so sharing humor with your staff can be good medicine.
Utilize the EAP. Do not try to diagnose employees, refer them to the EAP. Although employees may have varying degrees of adjusting there may be some who are having more difficulty. Reminding employees of the EAP service is the most effective way for them to address issues and develop helpful strategies. Including the EAP as a resource in your COVID-19 plans for those who may need additional support would be an effective way to normalize this resource.
EAP also offers management consultation where supervisors and managers can consult about employee or team issues, especially during this time, as well as using the EAP for your own well-being. If you do not fist secure your own oxygen mask, your effectiveness in helping others is severely compromised.
With any crisis, mitigating the impact and consequences in the workplace will help keep employees engaged and performing well. Providing an environment where employees feel safe and supported through this pandemic will be important for the workforce and the overall organization to thrive.